# Exploring the Concept of Inductive Reasoning With Examples

In psychology, inductive reasoning or 'induction' is defined as reasoning based on detailed facts and general principles, which are eventually used to reach a specific conclusion. It is one of the two types of reasoning; deductive reasoning being the other type.

Abhijit Naik

Last Updated: Apr 9, 2018

Categories

Inductive reasoning is further categorized into different types, i.e., inductive generalization, simple induction, causal inference, argument from analogy, and statistical syllogism. Given below are some examples, which will make you familiar with these types of inductive reasoning.

Causal Inference

Joe leaves home at 08:30 in the morning and arrives late for work, based on which he concludes that he will be late for work every time he leaves at 08:30.

Argument from Analogy

John and Joe are friends. John likes to sing, write and read. Joe likes to sing and write. Therefore one assumes that Joe also likes to read.

More Examples

The relationship between the premises and proposition forms the base of any inductive reasoning argument. Going through some examples of this form of reasoning will help you get a better understanding of the concept.

~Every time John eats shrimp, he gets cramps, and therefore he assumes that he gets cramps because he eats shrimp.

~John is an amazing athlete. So John's son too will go on to become an amazing athlete.

~When chimpanzees are exposed to rage, they tend to become violent. Humans are similar to chimpanzees, and therefore they tend to get violent when exposed to rage.

~The woman in the neighboring apartment has a shrill voice. I can hear a shrill voice from outside. There is a high probability that the woman in the neighboring apartment is shouting.

~All the dogs which were subjected to routine diagnosis had fleas, so one concludes that all the dogs have fleas.

~The Philadelphia Falcons have won their last four matches in a one-sided contest, and therefore their fans conclude that the Falcons will win their fifth match as well.

~Every time you get a call from some unknown number, you find a telemarketer on the other side of the line. It makes you conclude that if it's an unknown call, it is most likely to be a telemarketer.

~You see a dog chasing a cat in your neighborhood a couple of times, and start believing that the two animals cannot be kept in one house.

~A few episodes of a particular sitcom make you laugh, and you conclude that the said sitcom is very funny.

~100 pens are kept in front of you. On checking the first 10 pens, you note that 5 had black ink and 5 had blue ink, and therefore you conclude that half of the 100 pens are black and half are blue.

~Every time John eats shrimp, he gets cramps, and therefore he assumes that he gets cramps because he eats shrimp.

~John is an amazing athlete. So John's son too will go on to become an amazing athlete.

~When chimpanzees are exposed to rage, they tend to become violent. Humans are similar to chimpanzees, and therefore they tend to get violent when exposed to rage.

~The woman in the neighboring apartment has a shrill voice. I can hear a shrill voice from outside. There is a high probability that the woman in the neighboring apartment is shouting.

~All the dogs which were subjected to routine diagnosis had fleas, so one concludes that all the dogs have fleas.

~The Philadelphia Falcons have won their last four matches in a one-sided contest, and therefore their fans conclude that the Falcons will win their fifth match as well.

~Every time you get a call from some unknown number, you find a telemarketer on the other side of the line. It makes you conclude that if it's an unknown call, it is most likely to be a telemarketer.

~You see a dog chasing a cat in your neighborhood a couple of times, and start believing that the two animals cannot be kept in one house.

~A few episodes of a particular sitcom make you laugh, and you conclude that the said sitcom is very funny.

~100 pens are kept in front of you. On checking the first 10 pens, you note that 5 had black ink and 5 had blue ink, and therefore you conclude that half of the 100 pens are black and half are blue.